What has been the evolution of poverty and equity during the recent globalizing decades? How have poor countries fared on the Millennium Development Goals? What role does wealth inequality play in the level and efficiency of investment and, hence, in economic growth? Is gender equity a smart pro-growth strategy as well as a pro-poor one? How is equality different from equality of opportunity, and should policy makers pursue one, the other, or both? In formulating distributional strategies, should the middle class be integrally considered, or should the focus be entirely on the poorest of the poor? What are the precise impacts of globalization on poverty and equity, and what are the policy implications of these impacts? Is the problem with globalization that a key element is missing the globalization of labor employment? What is the role of international migration in the evolution of equity within and between nations? This book has been prepared for the Commission on Growth and Development to evaluate the state of knowledge on the relationship between poverty, equity, and globalization. It considers a range of questions on poverty and equity within nations, and the policy frameworks that can best address distributional concerns as the basis for a growth strategy. It also examines the important issue of equity between nations, in particular the possible role of international migration in alleviating this inequity. Written by prominent analysts in their fields, 'Equity and Growth in a Globalizing World' seeks to create a better understanding of the interactions between globalization, growth, and different dimensions of equity and poverty, and to inform policy makers of possible policy levers to address central concerns in the debates in this area.